9th Grade English
A Shaffer paragraph is a five sentence paragraph that has a definite structure and transition from one idea to the next.
Topic Sentence (TS) (CLAIM)
Concrete Detail (CD) (SUPPORT)
Commentary (CM) (EXPLAIN)
Commentary (CM) (EXPLAIN)
Concluding Sentence (CS)
Topic Sentence (TS): A sentence that states the main idea of a paragraph.
Concrete Detail (CD): Stuff from the story, the "what", facts, examples, illustrations, evidence, support, plot references, paraphrases, citations, quotations, plot summary, what really happens in the story?
CD starter- "For example..."
Commentary CM: Stuff from your head, the "so what?" words with feelings behind them that you can describe to me. Analysis, interpretation, a character's feelings, George feels ______. How does __ feel on the inside? opinion, inference, insight, reasons, color commentator.
CM #1: "This shows that…"
CM #2: "This also shows that…" or "This is important because…" or "This is because…"
Concluding Sentence (CS): The final sentence that summarized the main idea in a new way.
CS: "As a result…" or "In short…"
SCHAFFER PARAGRAPH EXAMPLE:
TS-Cinderella leads a miserable life. CD-For example, she does all the TS cooking, cleaning, and sewing. CM-This shows that she feels taken advantage of by her selfish stepmother and stepsisters. CM-This is important because her horrible life gives her a present, her fairy godmother. CS-As a result, she becomes a princess.
Schaffer’s Paragraph Model
English 9 Rubric
Emerging Proficient Exemplary
Topic Sentence (TS)
No topic sentence
There is a topic sentence but it is somewhat related to the rest of the paragraph.
There is a clear topic sentence that is directly related to the rest of the paragraph.
Concrete Detail (CD)
There are no concrete detail sentences to support the topic sentence.
There is at least one concrete detail sentence, but it fails to logically support the topic sentence.
There is clearly a concrete detail sentence that logically supports the topic sentence.
There are no commentary sentences.
There are two commentary sentences , but they merely restate the concrete detail.
There are two commentary sentences showing personal insight regarding the concrete detail.
Conclusion Sentence (CS)
There is no conclusion sentence at the end of the paragraph.
There is a conclusion sentence that simply restates the topic sentence.
There is a conclusion sentence that summarizes the topic of the paragraph in a new way.
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Black Mirror by Nancy Werlin
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When She Hollers by Cynthia Voigt
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Left for Dead: A Young Mans Search for Justice for the USS Indianapolis by Peter Nelson
While watching Jaws one day, 11-year-old Hunter Scott learned about the sinking of the USS Indianapolis and was so moved that he began his own investigations, which eventually led to the righting of an old injustice.
Mao's Last Dancer by Li Cunxin
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Marching for Freedom: Walk Together, Children, and Don't You Grow Weary by Elizabeth Partridge
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